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★2018高考英语语法知识点【省略句】

来源:热心网友     时间:2017-12-29     

语法题是高考英语必考的题型,很多考生在这类题上丢分严重,因此大家在考前必须复习好英语语法知识,下面学大教育网为大家带来2018高考英语语法知识点【省略句】,希望大家能够掌握好这些语法知识。

词法上的省略名词所有格后修饰的名词在以下情况可以省略

①如果名词所有格修饰的名词在前文已出现,则可以省略。

②名词所有格后修饰的名词如果是指商店、住宅等地点时,这些名词也常常省略。 These are John's books and those are Mary's (books).

这些是约翰的书,那些是玛丽的书。

at the doctor's 在诊所 at Mr. Green's 在格林先生家

to my uncle's 到我叔叔家 at the barber's 在理发店

冠词的省略

①为了避免重复

②在副词的最高级前面的定冠词常可以省略。

③在某些独立主格结构中。

④在as引导的让步状语从句中,当作表语的单数名词提前时,不定冠词要省略。 ①The lightning flashed and thunder crashed.电闪雷鸣。

(thunder前省略了定冠词the)

②She sings best in the class.她在班上唱歌唱得最好。

③Our teacher came in, book in hand.

(=Our teacher came in, with a book in his hand.)

我们的老师手里拿着一本书进来了。

④Child as he is, he knows a lot.

虽然他还是一个孩子,却懂得很多

介词的省略

①both 后常跟of短语,其后可以接名词复数形式,也可以接代词宾格复数形式。接复数名词时,介词of可以省略,但接代词宾格时,of不能省略。

②在现在完成时表持续和重复的句型中,一段时间前的介词for可以省略。

③和一些动词搭配构成的短语中的介词,consider... (as)..., prevent / stop... (from)doing...,

have trouble / difficulty... (in) doing...,spend... (in / on) doing... 等中的介词可以省略。 ①Both (of) the films were interesting. 这两部电影都很有趣。

She invited both of us to her birthday party.

她邀请我们俩去参加她的生日派对。

②These shoes are worn out. They have lasted (for) a long time.

这双鞋穿破了,已经穿了很长一段时间了。

③Trees can prevent the earth (from) being washed away.

树能阻止泥土被冲走。

Can you stop him (from) going swimming in the river?

你能阻止他下河洗澡吗?

I have some difficulty (in) answering the question.

回答这个问题我有点困难。

①有些动词,believe, find, think, feel, consider, imagine, prove等后作宾补的结构。

to be + n. / adj.中的to be可以省略。

②感官动词see, hear, feel, watch, notice 等以及使役动词let, make, have后作宾补的动词不定式,

其中的不定式符号to要省略,但变为被动结构时,to必须保留。

③在can not but, can not choose but, can not help but之后的动词不定式一般不带to;but之前有实

义动词do的某个形式do, does, did, done 时,也不带to, 否则要带to。

④在并列结构中为了避免重复。

⑤在why, why not 引导的特殊问句中后跟省略to的动词不定式。

⑥动词不定式中动词原形部分是否省略,主要看句子前面是否已出现过同样的动词。如果句子前面出现过同样的动词,为了避免重复,句子后面的不定式常省略动词原形,而保留不定式符号to。

①I consider him (to be) lazy.我认为他懒。

His mother found him (to be) a clever boy.

他母亲发觉他是一个很聪明的孩子。

②They made the boy go to bed early.他们强迫这个男孩早睡。

The boy was made to go to bed early. 这个男孩被迫早睡。

注:help后作宾补的动词不定式中的to可以省略也可保留。[MVC:PAGE]

③We have nothing to do now but wait.

我们现在除了等没有别的事可做。

I can not but admire his courage. 我不能不钦佩他的勇敢。

He has no choice but to accept the fact.

除了接受这个事实他别无选择。

④I'm really puzzled what to think or say.

我真不知道该怎么想,怎么说才好。

但两个不定式有对照或对比的意义时,则后一个to不能省。

I came not to scold but to praise you.

我来不是责备你,而是赞美你。

⑤Why talk so much about it?为什么大谈这个事呢?

Why not try it again? 为什么不再试一试呢?

⑥They may go if they wish to(go).

如果他们想去,他们就可以去。

Don't go till I tell you to.直到我告诉你去,你才可以去。

在一些动词afford, agree, expect, forget, mean, pretend, remember, want, refuse, hope, wish, would like (love), try等后跟动词不定式作宾语,不定式中的to可以承前(后)省略。

—Will you go to the cinema with me?

你愿和我一起去看电影吗?

—Well, I'd like to (go with you). 我愿意。

I would do it for you, but I don't know how to (do it for you).

我想为你做这事,但我又不知如何做。

在某些形容词,afraid, glad, willing, happy, eager等后承前省

略动词原形,只保留不定式符号to。

—Will you join us in the game?

你愿和我们一起做这个游戏吗?

—Sure, I'll be glad to(join you in the game). 当然,我愿意。

有些动词,tell, ask, allow, expect, force, invite, permit, persuade, order, warn, wish, would like,forbid等后跟动词不定式作宾语补足语、主语补足语时,不定式承前省略动词原形, 保留动词不定式符号to。

He didn't come, though we had invited him to (come).

尽管我们邀请他来,他却没来。

注:承前省略的动词不定式如果有助动词have或be,则要保留be或have。

—Are you a teacher? 你是老师吗?

—No, but I used to be (a teacher).不,我以前是。

句法上的省略简单句中的省略

①感叹句中常省略主语和谓语。

②在一些口语中可以省略某些句子成分。 ①What a hot day (it is)!多热的天啊!

How wonderful!多妙啊!

②—(Will you)Have a smoke?你抽烟吗?

—No.Thanks.不,谢谢了。

(Is there)Anything else to say?还有别的要说吗?

并列句中的省略

①如果主语不同,而谓语动词中的一部分相同,则省略谓语动词中相同的那部分。

②主语相同,谓语动词也相同,则二者都可以省略。

③主语相同,而谓语不同,则可以省略主语。

④在并列复合句中,如果that从句从属于第二个并列句且它的谓语动词和宾语等其它一些成分与第一个并列句相同时,这个that从句通常可以省略这些相同的部分。 ①John must have been playing football and Mary (must have been) doing her homework.

约翰一定在踢球,而玛丽一定在做作业。

②His suggestions made John happy, but (his suggestions made) Mary angry.

他的建议使约翰高兴,却使玛丽很生气。

③Old McDonald gave up smoking for a while, but (he) soon returned to his old ways.

老麦克唐纳戒了一阵子烟,可很快又抽上了。

④Jack will sing at the party, but I know John won't (sing at the party).

杰克将在晚会上唱歌,但我知道约翰不会在晚会上唱歌。

复合句中的省略

▲名词性从句中的省略

①作宾语的what从句中的谓语动词与主句的相同,则what从句可以省略谓语,甚至主语[MVC:PAGE]

②有时候也可以根据说话的情景来省略主句中的一些成分。

③在某些表虚拟语气的主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句中,从句谓语动词中的助动词should可以省略。

▲定语从句中的省略

①在限制性定语从句中,作宾语的关系代词that, which, who (whom)常可以省略。

②关系副词when, where, why以及that在the time(day, morning, afternoon, evening, night, week,

month, year等) when, the place(desk, table, room, spot, house, town, country, school等)where, the reason why, the way that结构中引导限制性定语从句时,在非正式场合下,可以省略关系副词when, where, why, that。

▲状语从句中的省略

当状语从句中的主语和主句的主语一致,或状语从句中的主语是it,并且又含有be动词时,常可以省略从句中的主语和be动词。

①在as, before, till, once, when, while等引导的时间状语从句中。

②在though, although,等引导的让步状语从句中。

③在if, unless(=if... not)等引导的条件状语从句中。

④在as, as if, as though引导的让步状语从句中。

⑤在as(so)... as..., than引导的比较状语从句中。 复合句中的省略

▲名词性从句中的省略

①Someone has used my bike, but I don't know who (has used it).

有人用了我的自行车,但我不知道是谁。

He has gone, but no one knows where (he has gone).

他走了,但没人知道他去哪儿了。

②(I'm)Sorry I've kept you waiting so long.

对不起,让你久等了。

③It's important that we (should) speak to the old politely.

我们对老人说话要有礼貌,这很重要。

▲定语从句中的省略

①The man(who/whom)I saw is called Smith.

我见到的那个人名叫史密斯。

Where is the book (which) I bought this morning?

今天上午我买的那本书在哪儿?

②I shall never forget the day (when) we first met.

我永远也不会忘记我们第一次见面的那一天。

The reason (why) he came so early is his own affair.

他来这么早是他自己的事。

The way (that) you answered the questions was admirable.

你回答这些问题的方式令人钦佩。

▲状语从句中的省略

①While(I was)waiting, I was reading some magazines.

我一边看杂志,一边等。

②Though (they were) tired, they went on working.

虽然他们累了,但他们仍继续工作。

③You shouldn't come to his party unless (you were) invited.

除非你被邀请,否则你不应该来参加他的宴会。

④He did as (he had been) told. 他按照被告知的那样去做了。

He paused as if (he was) expecting her to speak.

他停下来,好像是在期待她说话。

⑤He did as (he had been) told. 他按照被告知的那样去做了。

He paused as if (he was) expecting her to speak.

他停下来,好像是在期待她说话。

I know you can do better than he (can do).

我知道你能比他做得更好。

This car doesn't run as fast as that one (does).

这辆小车不及那辆跑得快。

2018高考英语语法知识点【省略句】学大教育网为大家带来过了,希望大家能够重视高考英语语法知识的复习,这样英语考试中遇到语法类的题型就能轻松进行解答。

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